Ciência habilitada por dados de espécimes

Zhao, Y., G. A. O’Neill, N. C. Coops, and T. Wang. 2024. Predicting the site productivity of forest tree species using climate niche models. Forest Ecology and Management 562: 121936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2024.121936

Species occurrence-based climate niche models (CNMs) serve as valuable tools for predicting the future ranges of species’ suitable habitats, aiding the development of climate change adaptation strategies. However, these models do not address an essential aspect - productivity, which holds economic significance for timber production and ecological importance for carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. In this study, we investigated the potential to extend the CNMs to predict species productivity under various climate conditions. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco.) were selected as our model species due to their comprehensive range-wide occurrence data and measurement of site productivity. To achieve this, we compared and optimized the performance of four individual modeling algorithms (Random Forest (RF), Maxent, Generalized Boosted Models (GBM), and Generalized Additive Model (GAM)) in reflecting site productivity by evaluating the effect of spatial filtering, and the ratio of presence to absence (p/a ratio) observations. Additionally, we applied a binning process to capture the overarching trend of climatic effects while minimizing the impact of other factors. We observed consistency in optimal performance across both species when using the unfiltered data and a 1:1.5 p/a ratio, which could potentially be extended to other species. Among the modeling algorithms explored, we selected the ensemble model combining RF and Maxent as the final model to predict the range-wide site productivity for both species. The predicted range-wide site productivity was validated with an independent dataset for each species and yielded promising results (R2 above 0.7), affirming our model’s credibility. Our model introduced an innovative approach for predicting species productivity with high accuracy using only species occurrence data, and significantly advanced the application of CNMs. It provided crucial tools and insights for evaluating climate change's impact on productivity and holds a better potential for informed forest management and conservation decisions.

Köhler, M., M. Romeiro‐Brito, and M. Telhe. 2024. The Cerrado through cacti. Journal of Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14846

Cerrado is a large and heterogeneous ecoregion in the Neotropics marked by the fire‐prone savanna vegetation, to which succulent lineages are usually not associated due to this adverse condition. However, recent studies have highlighted the importance of Cerrado as an ancestral range for the origin, dispersal and in situ diversification of remarkable lineages of South American cacti. In this perspective, we explore the implications of these occurrences in the Cerrado, shedding light on a frequently overlooked aspect of this ecoregion—the role of scattered rocky outcrop habitats acting as micro‐refuges for fire‐sensitive lineages. We show that most cacti occurrences are associated with patches of rock outcrops across the Cerrado. In contrast, when terricolous, a few disparate and not closely related species can develop underground structures or present a specialized habit that facilitates their presence as a putative response to fire—reinforcing the evolutionary lability of fire adaptation in Cerrado lineages. Despite some notable endemisms, several occurrences are from species with core distributions in adjacent ecoregions (e.g. Caatinga and Chaco), demonstrating the permeability of Cerrado, which can act concomitantly as a biogeographical barrier (especially due to its fire‐prone habitats) and as a corridor for biota interchange. Finally, we stress that Cerrado heterogeneity, often leading to different circumscriptions, is a relevant issue when studying and characterizing Neotropical biota, which must be further explored and considered to assess the evolutionary assembly of the biomes involved.

Dantas, V. L., L. C. S. Oliveira, C. R. Marcati, and J. Sonsin‐Oliveira. 2024. Coordination of bark and wood traits underlies forest‐to‐savanna evolutionary transitions. Journal of Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14850

Aim To test the hypothesis that adaptive shifts leading to the assembly of tropical savannas involved coordination between bark and wood traits and to understand the underlying mechanisms.LocationTropical South America.TaxonAngiosperms (woody).MethodsWe compiled data on three bark traits (total, inner and outer relative bark thickness), wood density, maximum height, five secondary xylem traits and on species' habitat information (light environment, climate, soil and fire history) for Neotropical savanna, forest and generalist species (biome groups). We tested for pairwise and multivariate associations among traits across species and if biome group and habitat conditions explained species positions along the resulting strategy axes.ResultsTraits covaried along four different axes. The first axis was consistent with a trade‐off between fire (thick barks) and shade tolerance (low bark to diameter ratio, high vessel density) and contributed to differentiate the three biome groups according to the preference for shaded environments. Forest species also differed from savanna and generalist species in a separate axis by being more resource acquisitive. Maximum height and wood density did not strongly trade‐off with bark thickness, although maximum height was negatively covaried with relative outer bark thickness. Preference for shaded conditions was the main driver of variation in the two principal strategy axes, but temperature, fire and soil sand content also explained differences in plant stature between savanna and generalist species.Main ConclusionsAllocation to bark is constrained by trade‐offs with wood, opposing shade‐tolerant and acquisitive forest species to fire‐resistant and conservative savanna species. Rather than a single strategy axis, three axes are necessary to understand the functional differences among savanna, forest and generalist species. Because two of these axes are controlled by light availability, the associated traits tend to covary in space and time, but not across species.

Minghetti, E., P. M. Dellapé, and S. I. Montemayor. 2024. Orsillus depressus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), an invasive circum-mediterranean species recently reported from America. Are the endemic and already endangered Cupressaceae trees from the Andean Region facing a new challenge? Biological Invasions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-024-03313-6

Orsillus depressus , a circum-mediterranean species of seed bug that lives on several genera and species of Cupressaceae is considered a pest of these trees, has recently been recorded for the first time in America, in Argentina. As the western records of O. depressus are close to endemic Cupressaceae forests from the Andean Region, our attention is drawn to the possible risk of colonization and establishment of O. depressus on these forests, where three endemic monotipic genera are found: Austrocedrus chilensis , Fitzroya cupressoides and Pilgerodendron uviferum . Maxent Models for present and future scenarios, and Minimum Volume Ellipsoids were used, and natural pathways were explored. Orsillus depressus has shown a high adaptive capacity to environments with different climates, and considering the models predictions, there are large suitable areas for its establishment in southern Argentina and Chile. Also, the climatic space O. depressus occupies is small and in part new, and an expansion should be expected. Moreover, multiple natural pathways were recognized that would allow its ingression in areas highly suitable with endemic Cupressaceae forests.

Werchan, M., B. Werchan, P. Bogawski, F. Mousavi, M. Metz, and K.-C. Bergmann. 2024. An emerging aeroallergen in Europe: Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) inventory and pollen concentrations – Taking a metropolitan region in Germany as an example. Science of The Total Environment 930: 172519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172519

Urban areas are often hotspots for the dissemination of non-native (invasive) plant species, some of which release (potentially) allergenic pollen. Given the high population density in cities, a considerable number of people can be regularly and potentially intensively exposed to the pollen from these plants. This study delves into the Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima, [Mill.] Swingle), native to East Asia, which is known for its high invasiveness in temperate regions worldwide, particularly favoring urban colonization. This study explores the botanical and aerobiological dimensions of this species using the central European metropolitan region of Berlin, Germany, as a case study, and provides a comprehensive global overview of allergological insights.The number of Ailanthus trees decreased markedly from the center to the periphery of Berlin City, following a temperature gradient. The same spatial trend was mirrored by airborne Ailanthus pollen concentrations measured with volumetric spore traps (Hirst-type) at five sites using seven traps. Ailanthus pollen was most abundant around midday and in the afternoon, with concentrations tenfold higher at street level than at roof level. The Ailanthus flowering period in June and July coincided well with the pollen season. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to investigate Ailanthus altissima pollen production. On average, 5539 pollen grains were found per anther. A literature review on the allergy relevance of Ailanthus altissima pollen indicates the high allergenic potential of pollen from this species.Considering the anticipated expansion of suitable habitats for Ailanthus owing to global warming and the allergological significance of its pollen, it is recommended to include Ailanthus pollen in routine pollen monitoring, particularly in areas colonized by this species. This comprehensive study provides new insights into a pollen taxon whose significance as an emerging aeroallergen should be factored into plant selection and greenspace management in all temperate regions.

Estrada-Sánchez, I., A. Espejo-Serna, J. García-Cruz, and A. R. López-Ferrari. 2024. Richness, distribution, and endemism of neotropical subtribe Ponerinae (Orchidaceae, Epidendreae). Brazilian Journal of Botany 47: 501–517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415-024-01005-y

The subtribe Ponerinae (Orchidaceae) includes the genera Helleriella A. D. Hawkes, Isochilus R. Brown, Nemaconia Knowles & Westc., and Ponera Lindl. Most of its species are epiphytes and usually grow on trees of the genus Quercus L. in cloud forests and temperate coniferous and broad-leaved forests; some taxa are rarely lithophytes or less frequently terrestrial. The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of the species of the subtribe Ponerinae using ecological niche models (ENM), determine areas with highest richness and endemism rates with the occurrence data and the models obtained, and determine if the areas with highest richness and endemism recognized in this work are located within any of the conservation areas (ANPs) and/or Regiones Terrestres Prioritarias (RTPs). We reviewed 1 044 herbarium specimens from ten institutional collections, corresponding to two species of Helleriella , eleven of Isochilus , six of Nemaconia , and two of Ponera , and a geographic and taxonomic database was generated. ENM were constructed with MaxEnt 3.3; and we determine areas with highest species richness and endemism with Biodiverse 4.3. Mexico is the richest country with 21 species, followed by Guatemala with nine. The more widely distributed species are: Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R.Br, and Nemaconia striata (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Salazar & Soto Arenas; I . oaxacanus Salazar & Soto Arenas is endemic to Mexican state of Oaxaca and N . dressleriana (Soto Arenas) van den Berg, Salazar & Soto Arenas of Morelos. The cells with higher occurrence richness and occurrence weighted endemism were located in Chiapas Highlands, and the higher occurrence of corrected weighted endemism is located in Transmexican Volcanic Belt, considered the nucleus of the Mexican Transition Zone. On the other hand, the cells with greater ENM richness and ENM weighted endemism were located in Sierra Madre del Sur, and the higher ENM corrected weighted endemism in Sierra Madre Oriental. It is suggested to change the status of the regions Cañón del Zopilote and El Tlacuache from RTPs to ANPs.

Serra‐Diaz, J. M., J. Borderieux, B. Maitner, C. C. F. Boonman, D. Park, W. Guo, A. Callebaut, et al. 2024. occTest: An integrated approach for quality control of species occurrence data. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13847

Aim Species occurrence data are valuable information that enables one to estimate geographical distributions, characterize niches and their evolution, and guide spatial conservation planning. Rapid increases in species occurrence data stem from increasing digitization and aggregation efforts, and citizen science initiatives. However, persistent quality issues in occurrence data can impact the accuracy of scientific findings, underscoring the importance of filtering erroneous occurrence records in biodiversity analyses.InnovationWe introduce an R package, occTest, that synthesizes a growing open‐source ecosystem of biodiversity cleaning workflows to prepare occurrence data for different modelling applications. It offers a structured set of algorithms to identify potential problems with species occurrence records by employing a hierarchical organization of multiple tests. The workflow has a hierarchical structure organized in testPhases (i.e. cleaning vs. testing) that encompass different testBlocks grouping different testTypes (e.g. environmental outlier detection), which may use different testMethods (e.g. Rosner test, jacknife,etc.). Four different testBlocks characterize potential problems in geographic, environmental, human influence and temporal dimensions. Filtering and plotting functions are incorporated to facilitate the interpretation of tests. We provide examples with different data sources, with default and user‐defined parameters. Compared to other available tools and workflows, occTest offers a comprehensive suite of integrated tests, and allows multiple methods associated with each test to explore consensus among data cleaning methods. It uniquely incorporates both coordinate accuracy analysis and environmental analysis of occurrence records. Furthermore, it provides a hierarchical structure to incorporate future tests yet to be developed.Main conclusionsoccTest will help users understand the quality and quantity of data available before the start of data analysis, while also enabling users to filter data using either predefined rules or custom‐built rules. As a result, occTest can better assess each record's appropriateness for its intended application.

Ramírez-Barahona, S. 2024. Incorporating fossils into the joint inference of phylogeny and biogeography of the tree fern order Cyatheales R. Warnock, and M. Zelditch [eds.],. Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1093/evolut/qpae034

Present-day geographic and phylogenetic patterns often reflect the geological and climatic history of the planet. Neontological distribution data are often sufficient to unravel a lineage’s biogeographic history, yet ancestral range inferences can be at odds with fossil evidence. Here, I use the fossilized birth–death process and the dispersal–extinction cladogenesis model to jointly infer the dated phylogeny and range evolution of the tree fern order Cyatheales. I use data for 101 fossil and 442 extant tree ferns to reconstruct the biogeographic history of the group over the last 220 million years. Fossil-aware reconstructions evince a prolonged occupancy of Laurasia over the Triassic–Cretaceous by Cyathealean tree ferns, which is evident in the fossil record but hidden from analyses relying on neontological data alone. Nonetheless, fossil-aware reconstructions are affected by uncertainty in fossils’ phylogenetic placement, taphonomic biases, and specimen sampling and are sensitive to interpretation of paleodistributions and how these are scored. The present results highlight the need and challenges of incorporating fossils into joint inferences of phylogeny and biogeography to improve the reliability of ancestral geographic range estimation.

Anest, A., Y. Bouchenak-Khelladi, T. Charles-Dominique, F. Forest, Y. Caraglio, G. P. Hempson, O. Maurin, and K. W. Tomlinson. 2024. Blocking then stinging as a case of two-step evolution of defensive cage architectures in herbivore-driven ecosystems. Nature Plants. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-024-01649-4

Dense branching and spines are common features of plant species in ecosystems with high mammalian herbivory pressure. While dense branching and spines can inhibit herbivory independently, when combined, they form a powerful defensive cage architecture. However, how cage architecture evolved under mammalian pressure has remained unexplored. Here we show how dense branching and spines emerged during the age of mammalian radiation in the Combretaceae family and diversified in herbivore-driven ecosystems in the tropics. Phylogenetic comparative methods revealed that modern plant architectural strategies defending against large mammals evolved via a stepwise process. First, dense branching emerged under intermediate herbivory pressure, followed by the acquisition of spines that supported higher speciation rates under high herbivory pressure. Our study highlights the adaptive value of dense branching as part of a herbivore defence strategy and identifies large mammal herbivory as a major selective force shaping the whole plant architecture of woody plants. This study explores the evolution of two traits, branching density and spine presence, in the globally distributed plant family Combretaceae. These traits were found to have appeared in a two-step process in response to mammalian herbivory pressure, revealing the importance of large mammals in the evolution of plant architecture diversity.

Prochazka, L. S., S. Alcantara, J. G. Rando, T. Vasconcelos, R. C. Pizzardo, and A. Nogueira. 2024. Resource availability and disturbance frequency shape evolution of plant life forms in Neotropical habitats. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19601

Organisms use diverse strategies to thrive in varying habitats. While life history theory partly explains these relationships, the combined impact of resource availability and disturbance frequency on life form strategy evolution has received limited attention.We use Chamaecrista species, a legume plant lineage with a high diversity of plant life forms in the Neotropics, and employ ecological niche modeling and comparative phylogenetic methods to examine the correlated evolution of plant life forms and environmental niches.Chamaephytes and phanerophytes have optima in environments characterized by moderate water and nutrient availability coupled with infrequent fire disturbances. By contrast, annual plants thrive in environments with scarce water and nutrients, alongside frequent fire disturbances. Similarly, geophyte species also show increased resistance to frequent fire disturbances, although they thrive in resource‐rich environments.Our findings shed light on the evolution of plant strategies along environmental gradients, highlighting that annuals and geophytes respond differently to high incidences of fire disturbances, with one enduring it as seeds in a resource‐limited habitat and the other relying on reserves and root resprouting systems in resource‐abundant habitats. Furthermore, it deepens our understanding of how organisms evolve associated with their habitats, emphasizing a constraint posed by low‐resource and high‐disturbance environments.