Ciência habilitada por dados de espécimes

Sarker, U., Y.-P. Lin, S. Oba, Y. Yoshioka, and K. Hoshikawa. 2022. Prospects and potentials of underutilized leafy Amaranths as vegetable use for health-promotion. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 182: 104–123.

Climate change causes environmental variation worldwide, which is one of the most serious threats to global food security. In addition, more than 2 billion people in the world are reported to suffer from serious malnutrition, referred to as ‘hidden hunger.’ Dependence on only a few crops could lead to the loss of genetic diversity and high fragility of crop breeding in systems adapting to global scale climate change. The exploitation of underutilized species and genetic resources, referred to as orphan crops, could be a useful approach for resolving the issue of adaptability to environmental alteration, biodiversity preservation, and improvement of nutrient quality and quantity to ensure food security. Moreover, the use of these alternative crops will help to increase the human health benefits and the income of farmers in developing countries. In this review, we highlight the potential of orphan crops, especially amaranths, for use as vegetables and health-promoting nutritional components. This review highlights promising diversified sources of amaranth germplasms, their tolerance to abiotic stresses, and their nutritional, phytochemical, and antioxidant values for vegetable purposes. Betalains (betacyanins and betaxanthins), unique antioxidant components in amaranth vegetables, are also highlighted regarding their chemodiversity across amaranth germplasms and their stability and degradation. In addition, we discuss the physiological functions, antioxidant, antilipidemic, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, as well as the biosynthesis pathway, molecular, biochemical, genetics, and genomic mechanisms of betalains in detail.

Sluiter, I. R. K., G. R. Holdgate, T. Reichgelt, D. R. Greenwood, A. P. Kershaw, and N. L. Schultz. 2022. A new perspective on Late Eocene and Oligocene vegetation and paleoclimates of South-eastern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 596: 110985.

We present a composite terrestrial pollen record of latest Eocene through Oligocene (35.5–23 Ma) vegetation and climate change from the Gippsland Basin of south-eastern Australia. Climates were overwhelmingly mesothermic through this time period, with mean annual temperature (MAT) varying between 13 and 18 °C, with an average of 16 °C. We provide evidence to support a cooling trend through the Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT), but also identify three subsequent warming cycles through the Oligocene, leading to more seasonal climates at the termination of the Epoch. One of the warming episodes in the Early Oligocene appears to have also occurred at two other southern hemisphere sites at the Drake Passage as well as off eastern Tasmania, based on recent research. Similarities with sea surface temperature records from modern high southern latitudes which also record similar cycles of warming and cooling, are presented and discussed. Annual precipitation varied between 1200 and 1700 mm/yr, with an average of 1470 mm/yr through the sequence. Notwithstanding the extinction of Nothofagus sg. Brassospora from Australia and some now microthermic humid restricted Podocarpaceae conifer taxa, the rainforest vegetation of lowland south-eastern Australia is reconstructed to have been similar to present day Australian Evergreen Notophyll Vine Forests existing under the sub-tropical Köppen-Geiger climate class Cfa (humid subtropical) for most of the sequence. Short periods of cooler climates, such as occurred through the EOT when MAT was ~ 13 °C, may have supported vegetation similar to modern day Evergreen Microphyll Fern Forest. Of potentially greater significance, however, was a warm period in the Early to early Late Oligocene (32–26 Ma) when MAT was 17–18 °C, accompanied by small but important increases in Araucariaceae pollen. At this time, Araucarian Notophyll/Microphyll Vine Forest likely occurred regionally.

Coetzee, J. A., M. P. Hill, T. Ruiz-Téllez, U. Starfinger, and S. Brunel. 2017. Monographs on invasive plants in Europe N° 2: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. Botany Letters 164: 303–326.

Eichhornia crassipes is notorious as the world’s worst aquatic weed, and here we present all aspects of its biology, ecology and invasion behaviour within the framework of the new series of Botany Letters on Monographs on invasive plants in Europe. Native to the Amazon in South America, the plant has been spread around the world since the late 1800s through the ornamental plant trade due to its attractive lilac flowers, and is established on every continent except Antarctica. Its distribution is limited in Europe to the warmer southern regions by cold winter temperatures, but it has extensive ecological and socio-economic impacts where it invades. Its reproductive behaviour, characterised by rapid vegetative spread and high seed production, as well as its wide physiological tolerance, allows it to proliferate rapidly and persist in a wide range of environments. It has recently been regulated by the EU, under Regulation No. 1143/2014, which states that E. crassipes shall not be brought into the territory of the Union, kept, bred or transported to, from or within the Union. However, in the absence of effective control measures, such as herbicidal and biological control, it will continue to be a significant threat to European waterways, particularly in eutrophic waters, and under future climate change scenarios.

Rodrigues, A. V., G. Nakamura, V. G. Staggemeier, and L. Duarte. 2022. Species misidentification affects biodiversity metrics: Dealing with this issue using the new R package naturaList. Ecological Informatics 69: 101625.

Biodiversity databases are increasingly available and have fostered accelerated advances in many disciplines within ecology and evolution. However, the quality of the evidence generated depends critically on the quality of the input data, and species misidentifications are present in virtually any o…

Liang, S., X. Zhang, and R. Wei. 2022. Ecological adaptation shaped the genetic structure of homoploid ferns against strong dispersal capacity. Molecular Ecology 31: 2679–2697.

The formation of spatial genetic structure with the presence of extensive gene flow, an evolutionary force which is generally expected to eliminate population-specific variation and maintain genetic homogeneity, remains poorly understood. Homosporous ferns, which spread by spores through wind and possess long-distance dispersal capacity, provide an ideal system to investigate such a process. Here, using a homoploid fern lineage, the Athyrium sinense complex, we used reduced-representation genomic data to examine spatial genetic structure and explored potential driving forces including geographical distance, environment, climatic history and external dispersal constraints. Our findings showed a clear north-south divergence at the genetic, morphological and ecological levels between both sides of 35°N in East Asia. Fluctuant and heterogeneous climatic condition was demonstrated to play a crucial role during the formation of the divergence. Our results suggested that this lineage was able to migrate southward and colonize new habitat as a result of the Quaternary climatic fluctuation. Furthermore, the present genetic structure is attributed to adaptation to heterogeneous environments, especially temperature difference. In addition to ecological adaptation, we found clues showing that canopy density, wind direction as well as habitat continuity were all likely to constrain the effect of gene flow. These results demonstrated a diversification process without ploidy changes in ferns providing new insights for our present knowledge on ferns’ spatio-temporal evolutionary pattern. In particular, our study highlights the influence of environmental heterogeneity in driving genetic divergence against strong dispersal capacity.

Mercado, M. A., and A. J. Studer. 2022. Meeting in the Middle: Lessons and Opportunities from Studying C3-C4 Intermediates. Annual Review of Plant Biology 73: 43–65.

The discovery of C3-C4 intermediate species nearly 50 years ago opened up a new avenue for studying the evolution of photosynthetic pathways. Intermediate species exhibit anatomical, biochemical, and physiological traits that range from C3 to C4. A key feature of C3-C4 intermediates that utilize C2 …

Nowell, V. J., S. Wang, and T. W. Smith. 2022. Conservation assessment of a range-edge population of Trichophorum planifolium (Cyperaceae) reveals range-wide inbreeding and locally divergent environmental conditions. Botany 100: 631–642.

Peripheral populations hold special conservation significance as repositories of genetic diversity, while they may also be at increased risk of extirpation. We collected genetic, ecological, and distributional data to evaluate an endangered range-edge population of Trichophorum planifolium. Our data…

Filartiga, A. L., A. Klimeš, J. Altman, M. P. Nobis, A. Crivellaro, F. Schweingruber, and J. Doležal. 2022. Comparative anatomy of leaf petioles in temperate trees and shrubs: the role of plant size, environment and phylogeny. Annals of Botany 129: 567–582.

Background and Aims Petioles are important plant organs connecting stems with leaf blades and affecting light-harvesting ability of the leaf as well as transport of water, nutrients and biochemical signals. Despite the high diversity in petiole size, shape and anatomy, little information is availabl…

Wang, D., C. Shi, K. Alamgir, S. Kwon, L. Pan, Y. Zhu, and X. Yang. 2022. Global assessment of the distribution and conservation status of a key medicinal plant (Artemisia annua L.): The roles of climate and anthropogenic activities. Science of The Total Environment 821: 153378.

As a medicinal plant, Artemisia annua L. is the main source of artemisinin in malaria drugs, but the lack of understanding of its distribution, environmental conditions and protection status limits the mass acquisition of artemisinin. Therefore, we used the ensemble forecast method to model the curr…

Dantas, V. L., and J. G. Pausas. 2022. The legacy of the extinct Neotropical megafauna on plants and biomes. Nature Communications 13.

Large mammal herbivores are important drivers of plant evolution and vegetation patterns, but the extent to which plant trait and ecosystem geography currently reflect the historical distribution of extinct megafauna is unknown. We address this question for South and Central America (Neotropical bio…