Ciência habilitada por dados de espécimes

Betzholtz, P.-E., A. Forsman, and M. Franzén. 2023. Increased Abundance Coincides with Range Expansions and Phenology Shifts: A Long-Term Case Study of Two Noctuid Moths in Sweden. Diversity 15: 1177. https://doi.org/10.3390/d15121177

Environmental and climatic changes are inducing population declines in numerous species. However, certain species demonstrate remarkable resilience, exhibiting both population growth and range expansion. This longitudinal study in Sweden carried out over two decades (2004–2023) examines the noctuid moths Mythimna albipuncta and Hoplodrina ambigua. Abundance and phenology data were gathered from three light traps in southeastern Sweden and integrated with distribution and phenology data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In M. albipuncta, the distribution area expanded from 7 to 76 occupied grids (60 km2) and the abundance increased from 7 to 6136 individuals, while in H. ambigua, the distribution area expanded from 1 to 87 occupied grids and the abundance increased from 0 to 6937 individuals, during the course of the study. Furthermore, a positive yearly association was observed between the number of occupied grids and light trap abundance for each species. We also found significant extensions in the adult flight periods of more than 100 days in both species. Light traps emerged as an effective monitoring tool, with light trap abundance as a reliable proxy for distribution changes. Our findings demonstrate that the studied species cope very well with environmental and climatic changes. Given their role as dominant links between primary producers and higher trophic levels, abundance and distribution shifts of these ecological engineers have the potential to cascade up and down in the ecosystem.

Kebaïli, C., S. Sherpa, M. Guéguen, J. Renaud, D. Rioux, and L. Després. 2023. Comparative genetic and demographic responses to climate change in three peatland butterflies in the Jura massif. Biological Conservation 287: 110332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110332

Climate is a main driver of species distributions, but all species are not equally affected by climate change, and their differential responses to similar climatic constraints might dramatically affect the local species composition. In the context of climate warming, a better knowledge of the ability of dispersal-limited and habitat-specialist species to track climate change at local scale is urgently needed. Comparing the population genetic and demographic impacts of past climate cycles in multiple co-distributed species with similar ecological requirements help predicting the community-scale response to climate warming, but such comparative studies remain rare. Here, we studied the relationship between demographic history and past changes in spatial distribution of three protected peatland butterfly species (Boloria aquilonaris, Coenonympha tullia, Lycaena helle) in the Jura massif (France), using a genomic approach (ddRAD sequencing) and species distribution modeling (SDM). We found a similar and narrow thermal niche among species, and shared demographic histories of post-glacial decline and recent fragmentation of populations. Each species functions as a single metapopulation at the regional scale, with a North-South gradient of decreasing genetic diversity that fits the local dynamics of the ice cover over time. However, we found no correlation between changes in the quantity or the quality of suitable areas and changes in effective population size over time. This suggests that species ranges moved beyond the Jura massif during the less favorable climatic periods, and/or that habitat loss and deterioration are major drivers of the current dramatic decline observed in the three species. Our findings allow better understanding how history events and contemporary dynamics shape local biodiversity, providing valuable knowledge to identify appropriate conservation strategies.

Westerduin, C., M. Suokas, T. Petäjä, U. Saarela, S. Vainio, and M. Mutanen. 2023. Exploring and validating observations of non‐local species in eDNA samples. Ecology and Evolution 13. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.10612

AbstractThe development of DNA‐based methods in recent decades has opened the door to numerous new lines of research in the biological sciences. While the speed and accuracy of DNA methodologies are clearly beneficial, the sensitivity of these methods has the adverse effect of increased susceptibility to false positives resulting from contamination in field or lab. Here, we present findings from a metabarcoding study on the diet of and food availability for five insectivorous birds, in which multiple lepidopteran species not known to occur locally were discovered. After describing the pattern of occurrences of these non‐local species in the samples, we discuss various potential origins of these sequences. First, we assessed that the taxonomic assignments appeared reliable, and local occurrences of many of the species could be plausibly ruled out. Then, we looked into the possibilities of natural environmental contamination, judging it to be unlikely, albeit impossible to fully falsify. Finally, while dissimilar combinations of non‐local species' occurrences across the samples did not initially suggest lab contamination, we found overlap with taxa and sequences handled in the same lab, which was undoubtedly not coincidental. Even so, not all exact sequences were accounted for in these locally conducted studies, nor was it clear if these and other sequences could remain detectable years later. Although the full explanation for the observations of non‐local species remains inconclusive, these findings highlight the importance of critical examination of metabarcoding results, and showcase how species‐level taxonomic assignments utilizing comprehensive reference libraries may be a tool in detecting potential contamination events, and false positives in general.

Jospin, A., Y. Chittaro, D. Bolt, D. Demergès, K. Gurcel, J. Hensle, A. Sanchez, et al. 2023. Genomic evidence for three distinct species in the Erebia manto complex in Central Europe (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Conservation Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-023-01501-w

A problem to implement conservation strategies is that in many cases recognized taxa are in fact complexes of several cryptic species. Failure to properly delineate species may lead to misplaced priorities or to inadequate conservation measures. One such species complex is the yellow-spotted ringlet Erebia manto , which comprises several phenotypically distinct lineages, whose degree of genomic isolation has so far not been assessed. Some of these lineages are geographically restricted and thus possibly represent distinct units with conservation priorities. Using several thousand nuclear genomic markers, we evaluated to which degree the bubastis lineage from the Alps and the vogesiaca lineage from the Vosges, are genetically isolated from the widespread manto lineage. Our results suggest that both lineages are genetically as strongly differentiated from manto as other taxonomically well separated sibling species in this genus from each other, supporting a delineation of bubastis and vogesiaca as independent species. Given the restricted and isolated range of vogesiaca as well as the disjunct distribution of bubastis, our findings have significant implication for future conservation efforts on these formerly cryptic species and highlight the need to investigate the genomic identity within species complexes.

Gil‐Tapetado, D., C. D. Soria, J. F. Gómez, J. M. Sesma, and F. J. Cabrero‐Sañudo. 2022. Aridity could have driven the local extinction of a common and multivoltine butterfly. Ecological Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.13200

Identifying which species are being negatively impacted by climate change and the mechanisms driving their decline is essential to effectively protect biodiversity.Coenonympha pamphilus is a common and generalist butterfly, widely distributed throughout the Western Palearctic, being multivoltine in southern Europe. Previous studies indicate that it will not be substantially affected by climate change; however, it has seemingly disappeared from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in the last decades.Here, we aim to determine if it has effectively disappeared from this area, as well as identify the environmental conditions limiting its distribution and the potential causes behind this a priori local extinction.We downloaded all the occurrence records of C. pamphilus and analysed their spatial and temporal trends. To identify the climatic variables driving the distribution of this butterfly in the Iberian Peninsula, we performed an ensemble species distribution model (SDM), combining 600 individual models produced with 6 algorithms.We confirmed that C. pamphilus has not been observed in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula since 2008. Aridity was the main factor limiting the distribution of C. pamphilus in our ensemble SDM, with areas with high aridity being unsuitable for this species.We hypothesise that multivoltinism is the mechanism driving this local extirpation, as high aridity is causing host plants (Poaceae) to wither prematurely, precluding the development of the second and/or third generations of the butterfly. Even though generalist species are theoretically more resilient to climate change, other traits such as multivoltinism may increase their vulnerability and need to be further investigated.

Song, J.-W., J.-M. Jung, Y. Nam, J.-K. Jung, S. Jung, and W.-H. Lee. 2022. Spatial ensemble modeling for predicting the potential distribution of Lymantria dispar asiatica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) in South Korea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10609-4

The spongy moth, Lymantria dispar , is a pest that damages various tree species throughout North America and Eurasia, has recently emerged in South Korea, threatening local forests and landscapes. The establishment of effective countermeasures against this species’ outbreak requires predicting its potential distribution with climate change. In this study, we used species distribution models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to predict the potential distribution of the spongy moth and identify areas at risk of exposure to a sustained occurrence of the pest by constructing an ensemble map that simultaneously projected the outcomes of the two models. The results showed that the spongy moth could be distributed over the entire country under the current climate, but the number of suitable areas would decrease under a climate change scenario. This study is expected to provide basic data that can predict areas requiring intensive control and monitoring in advance with methodologically improved modeling technique.

Song, J.-W., J.-M. Jung, Y.-W. Nam, H.-M. Byun, S.-H. Yoon, S.-H. Jung, and W.-H. Lee. 2022. Spatiotemporal Statistics for Analyzing Climatic Conditions Influencing Lymantria dispar Outbreaks. Forests 13: 1474. https://doi.org/10.3390/f13091474

The spongy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a forest pest that damages a variety of trees in North America and Eurasia. A spongy moth outbreak occurred in part of South Korea in 2020 and caused severe damage to domestic forests and human society. Since the occurrence of spongy moths is influenced by climatic factors, this study examines the causes of spongy moth outbreaks by analyzing the temporal and spatial differences in climatic factors, influencing spongy moth occurrence using specimens collected during field surveys. Climatic factors were identified using global occurrence coordinates to compare the weather characteristics of spongy moth occurrence in domestic regions, using the kernel density function. Spatial and temporal comparisons were performed for monthly weather factors obtained from field surveys in 2020 and 2021 in areas with high and low spongy moth larvae densities. Spongy moth outbreaks may result from particular combinations of variable seasonality in temperature and precipitation, including high temperatures during cold periods and low precipitation during developmental periods.

Schneider, K., D. Makowski, and W. van der Werf. 2021. Predicting hotspots for invasive species introduction in Europe. Environmental Research Letters 16: 114026. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac2f19

Plant pest invasions cost billions of Euros each year in Europe. Prediction of likely places of pest introduction could greatly help focus efforts on prevention and control and thus reduce societal costs of pest invasions. Here, we test whether generic data-driven risk maps of pest introduction, val…